The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) gives this advice for travelers.
rabies vaccine is a three-shot series. Make sure to schedule
the first shot at least 21 days before your trip.
want the rabies vaccine and will also be taking mefloquine or chloroquine
to prevent malaria, finish your series of rabies vaccines before you start to take those other
medicines. They could interfere with the antibody response to
the rabies vaccine. (But you can get the postexposure rabies vaccine at the same time as the malaria drugs without any problem.)