Dyggve Melchior Clausen syndrome
National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.
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Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen (DMC) syndrome is a rare, progressive genetic disorder characterized by abnormal skeletal development, microcephaly and intellectual disability. The condition was first reported by Dyggve, Melchior and Clausen in 1962 in three of eight siblings where the father was the mother's paternal uncle. Because of physical appearance and the present of acid mucopolysaccharides in the urine, Dyggve believed that their affected patients had Morquio-Ullrich disease (now Morquio syndrome). Skeletal abnormalities in this condition may include a barrel-shaped chest with a short truck, partial dislocation of the hips, genu valgum (knocked knees) or varum (bowed legs), and decreased joint mobility. In 11% of patients, there is atlantoaxial (upper neck vertebrae) instability that can lead to spinal cord compression, weakness and paralysis. Normally, there is growth deficiency resulting in short stature. Radiographic findings in older children and adults are pathognomonic for the disorder. DMC results from mutations in the DYM (dymeclin) gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive mode.
A variant of DMC syndrome, Smith-McCort syndrome (SMS), which was first described by Smith and McCort in 1958, has identical skeletal abnormalities, but lacks the intellectual disability. SMS is also caused by mutations in DYM, and thus is allelic to DMC. Both are classified as osteochondrodysplasias, specifically a spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia; this latter category of dysplasias consists of 28 separate disorders.
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Last Updated: 3/13/2012
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