Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation
National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.
It is possible that the main title of the report Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) is an umbrella term for a rapidly expanding group of rare genetic, metabolic disorders due to defects in complex chemical process known as glycosylation. Glycosylation is the process by which sugar ‘trees' (glycans) are created, altered and chemically attached to certain proteins or fats (lipids). When these sugar molecules are attached to proteins, they form glycoproteins; when they are attached to lipids, they form glycolipids. Glycoproteins and glycolipids have numerous important functions in all tissues and organs. Glycosylation involves many different genes, encoding many different proteins such as enzymes. A deficiency or lack of one of these enzymes can lead to a variety of symptoms potentially affecting multiple organ systems. CDG can affect any part of the body, and there is nearly always an important neurological component. CDG can be associated with a broad variety of symptoms and can vary in severity from mild cases to severe, disabling or life-threatening cases. CDG are usually apparent from infancy. Individual CDG are caused by a mutation to a specific gene. Most CDG are inherited as autosomal recessive conditions.
CDG were first reported in the medical literature in 1980 by Dr. Jaak Jaeken and colleagues. More than 80 different forms of CDG have been identified in the ensuing years. Several different names have been used to describe these disorders including carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes. Recently, Jaeken and colleagues have proposed a classification system that names each subtype by the official abbreviation of its defective gene followed by a dash and CDG. For example, congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1a is now known as PMM2-CDG. PMM2 is the defective gene that causes this subtype of CDG.
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This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be downloaded free from the NORD website for registered users. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational therapies (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, go to www.rarediseases.org and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information".
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It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report
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Last Updated: 12/15/1969
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