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Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI]

This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

Complementary and Alternative Therapies


Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes a wide variety of therapies, botanicals, nutritional products, and practices. These forms of treatment are used in addition to (complementary) or instead of (alternative) standard treatments. The 2007 National Health Interview Survey reported that about 4 out of 10 adults use a CAM therapy, naming natural products and deep breathing the most commonly used treatments.

One large survey reported on the use of complementary therapies in cancer survivors. The therapies used most often were prayer and spiritual practice, relaxation, faith and spiritual healing, and nutritional supplements and vitamins. CAM therapies are used often by children with cancer, both in and outside clinical trials. CAM therapies have been used to manage side effects caused by cancer or cancer treatment.

This complementary and alternative medicine summary gives a brief description of CAM therapies found in PDQ Cancer Information Summaries or Fact Sheets from the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Links are included to take you to the specific PDQ summary or NCI Fact Sheet for more information about each topic.


Acupuncture is a part of traditional Chinese medicine used in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years. In patients with cancer, acupuncture is usually used to relieve symptoms, treat side effects of therapy, and improve quality of life. It may help the immune system work better, control nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, and relieve cancer pain. Acupuncture may treat weight loss, anxiety, depression, insomnia, poor appetite, and gastrointestinal symptoms (constipation and diarrhea).

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Acupuncture for more information.

Botanicals / Herbal Products

Black Cohosh

Black cohosh is a North American perennial herb. A substance found in the root of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat a number of medical conditions. Black cohosh has been studied to relieve hot flashes. However, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials using this herb have found that black cohosh is no better than a placebo in relieving hot flashes.

  • See the Herbs/Dietary Supplements section in the PDQ health professional summary on Fever, Sweats, and Hot Flashes for more information on black cohosh.

Cannabisand Cannabinoids

Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is a plant from Central Asia that is grown in many parts of the world today. In the United States, it is a controlled substance and is classified as a Schedule I agent (a drug with increased potential for abuse and no known medical use). The Cannabis plant makes a resin that contains active chemicals called cannabinoids. Cannabinoids cause drug-like effects throughout the body, including the central nervous system and the immune system. Possible benefits of medicinal Cannabis for people living with cancer include control of nausea and vomiting, increasing appetite, relieving pain, and improving sleep.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Cannabis and Cannabinoids for more information.

Essiac/Flor Essence

Essiac and Flor Essence are herbal tea mixtures originally developed in Canada. They are marketed worldwide as dietary supplements. Supporters of Essiac and Flor Essence say that these products can help detoxify the body, make the immune system stronger, and fight cancer. There is no evidence in clinical trials that Essiac or Flor Essence can be effective in treating patients with cancer.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Essiac/Flor Essence for more information.


Flaxseed comes from the flax plant. It is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acid, fiber, and a compound called lignin. It is being studied in the prevention of several types of cancer. Flaxseed has also been studied for its effect on hot flashes.

  • See the Herbs/Dietary Supplements section in the PDQ health professional summary on Fever, Sweats, and Hot Flashes for more information on flaxseed.


Ginger is an herb that is used in cooking and in some cultures to treat medical conditions such as nausea. It can be used fresh, dried and powdered, or as a juice or oil. Ginger has been studied for the relief of nausea and vomiting in cancer patients.

  • See the Ginger section in the PDQ health professional summary on Nausea and Vomiting for information about a randomized control trial of children and young adults diagnosed with bone sarcomas.

Milk Thistle

Milk thistle is a plant whose fruit and seeds have been used for more than 2,000 years as a treatment for liver and bile duct disorders. The active substance in milk thistle is silymarin. Laboratory studies show that silymarin stimulates repair of liver tissue and acts as an antioxidant that protects against cell damage. It slows the growth of certain types of cancer cells and may make some types of chemotherapy less toxic and more effective.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Milk Thistle for more information.

Mistletoe Extracts

Mistletoe is a semiparasitic plant that has been used since ancient times to treat many ailments. It is used commonly in Europe, where a variety of different extracts are made and marketed as injectable prescription drugs. The FDA does not allow these injectable drugs to be sold in the United States and they are not approved as a treatment for patients with cancer.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Mistletoe Extracts for more information.


PC-SPES is a patented mixture of eight herbs. Each herb used in PC-SPES has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, or anticancer properties. PC-SPES was taken off the market because some batches were found to contain prescription medicines in addition to the herbs. The manufacturer is no longer in business and PC-SPES is no longer being made.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on PC-SPES for more information.

St. John's Wort

St. John's wort is a plant with yellow flowers that has been used since ancient times for medical conditions. St. John's wort is sold as an over-the-counter herbal treatment for depression. Studies comparing St. John's wort with standard antidepressant medicines have shown mixed results. St. John's wort may change the way other medicines work, including anticancer medicines.

  • See the Treatment of Depression section in the PDQ patient summary on Depression for information about clinical trials that have studied St. John's wort as a treatment for depression.

Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup

"Selected Vegetables" and "Sun's Soup" are different mixtures of vegetables and herbs that have been studied as treatments for cancer. Dried and frozen forms of Selected Vegetables are sold in the United States as dietary supplements. The vegetables and herbs in Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup are thought to have substances that block the growth of cancer cells and/or help the body's immune system kill cancer cells. There is limited evidence that Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup is useful as a treatment for cancer and no randomized or controlled clinical trials have been done.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup for more information.

Mind-Body Therapies and Massage

Aromatherapy and Essential Oils

Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils from plants (flowers, herbs, or trees) as therapy to improve physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Patients with cancer use aromatherapy mainly as supportive care to improve their quality of life, such as lowering stress and anxiety. Aromatherapy may be combined with other complementary treatments (e.g., massage and acupuncture) as well as with standard treatment.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Aromatherapy and Essential Oils for more information.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapy that helps patients change their behavior by changing the way they think and feel about certain things. CBT may be helpful in treating many side effects of cancer and cancer treatment.

Thinking and behavioral interventions focus on positive thoughts and images instead of negative thoughts and behaviors. Patients may gain a sense of control and develop coping skills to deal with the disease and its symptoms. These interventions also show promise for the treatment of insomnia in patients with cancer.

  • See the Thinking, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Interventions section in the PDQ patient summary on Pain for more information.
  • See the Management section in the PDQ patient summary on Sleep Disorders for information about sleep studies in cancer patients.

Relaxation and imagery techniques may be used for short periods of pain or discomfort (e.g., during procedures). Quick, simple techniques are useful when the patient has trouble concentrating due to severe pain, anxiety, fatigue, or nausea.

  • See the Thinking, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Interventions section in the PDQ patient summary on Pain for more information about relaxation and imagery.
  • See the Treatment of Sleep Disorders section in the PDQ patient summary on Sleep Disorders for more information about cognitive behavioral therapy and relaxation therapy.
  • See the Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting and Treating Nausea and Vomiting Without Drugs sections in the PDQ patient summary on Nausea and Vomiting for more information about relaxation and imagery.

CBT for may be helpful for depression in patients with cancer. Most counseling or talk therapy programs for depression are offered in both individual and small-group settings. CBT may also help decrease a cancer patient's fatigue by working on cancer-related factors that make fatigue worse.

  • See the Treatment of Depression section in the PDQ patient summary on Depression for more information about talk therapy and counseling.
  • See the Talk therapy section in the PDQ patient summary on Fatigue for more information.

CBT may be used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients with cancer. The treatment can focus on solving problems, teaching coping skills, and providing a supportive setting for the patient.

  • See the Treatment section in the PDQ patient summary on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder for more information.


Hypnosis is a trance-like state that allows a person to be more aware and focused and more open to suggestion. Under hypnosis, the person can concentrate more clearly on a specific thought, feeling, or sensation without becoming distracted.

  • See the Psychosocial Interventions for Distress section in the PDQ health professional summary on Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress for more information about using hypnosis to relieve pain.
  • See the Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions section in the PDQ health professional summary on Pain for more information about a clinical trial that has studied hypnosis to relieve distress before surgery.

Manual Lymphedema Therapy

Manual lymphedema therapy is a massage that helps move lymph fluid out of a swollen arm or leg into healthy lymph nodes where it can drain.

  • See the Treatment of Lymphedema section in the PDQ patient summary on Lymphedema for more information about manual lymphedema therapy.


Massage therapy has been studied as part of supportive care in managing cancer-related pain. Massage may help improve relaxation and benefit mood. Massage stimulates the release of substances that relieve pain and give a feeling of well-being and increases blood and lymphatic circulation.

  • See the Integrative Interventions section in the PDQ patient summary on Pain for more information about the role of massage in the management of cancer pain.

Music Interventions for Pain

Music interventions may help relieve pain and lessen anxiety in some patients. Music therapy and music medicine have been used to relieve pain caused by cancer and by procedures and treatments.

  • See the Integrative Interventions section in the PDQ patient summary on Pain for information about studies investigating the effect of music on pain.


Qigong is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that combines movement, meditation, and controlled breathing. Its purpose is to enhance the vital energy or life force that keeps a person's spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical health in balance.

  • See the Exercise section in the PDQ patient summary on Fatigue for more information about how qigong is being studied in cancer-related fatigue.


Studies have shown that religious and spiritual values are important to most Americans. Many patients with cancer rely on spiritual or religious beliefs and practices to help them cope with their disease. For healthcare providers, spiritual or religious well-being are sometimes viewed as an aspect of complementary and alternative medicine.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Spirituality for information about religion, spirituality, spiritual well-being, and health.


Yoga is an ancient system of practices used to balance the mind and body through exercise, meditation (focusing thoughts), and control of breathing and emotions. Yoga is being studied as a way to relieve stress and treat sleep problems in cancer patients.

  • See the Mindfulness-based stress reduction for survivors of breast cancer section in the PDQ health professional summary on Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress for information about a clinical trial using meditation and yoga to lower stress.

Nutritional Therapies

Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. Free radical damage may lead to cancer. Examples of antioxidants include beta-carotene, lycopene, vitamins C, E, and A, and other substances.

  • See Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention: Fact Sheet for more information about antioxidants.

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 is made naturally by the human body. Coenzyme Q10 helps cells produce energy and acts as an antioxidant. Studies show that coenzyme Q10 may boost the immune system and protect the heart from damage caused by certain chemotherapy drugs. No report of a randomized clinical trial using coenzyme Q10 as a treatment for cancer has been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Coenzyme Q10 for more information.

Dietary Supplements

Many studies suggest that the use of complementary and alternative medicine is common among prostate cancer patients, and the use of vitamins, supplements, and specific foods is frequently reported by these patients.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements for information about green tea, lycopene, modified citrus pectin, pomegranate, soy, and Zyflamend supplements used by some prostate cancer patients.

Gerson Therapy

The Gerson therapy is used by some practitioners as a treatment for cancer based on changes in diet and nutrient intake. An organic vegetarian diet plus nutritional and biological supplements, pancreatic enzymes, and coffee or other types of enemas are the main features of the Gerson therapy. Few clinical studies of the Gerson therapy have been published.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Gerson Therapy for more information.

Gonzalez Regimen

The Gonzalez regimen is a cancer treatment that is tailored by the practitioner for each patient and is currently available only to the patients of its developer. It involves taking certain pancreatic enzymes thought to have anticancer activity. The regimen also includes specific diets, vitamin and mineral supplements, extracts of animal organs, and coffee enemas.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Gonzalez Regimen for more information.


Lycopene is a carotenoid (a natural pigment made by plants). It is found in a number of fruits and vegetables, including apricots, guava, and watermelon. The main source of lycopene in the American diet is tomato-based products. Lycopene is thought to have antioxidant activity. Lycopene has been studied for its role in chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  • See the Lycopene section in the PDQ patient summary on Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements for more information.


Melatonin is a hormone made by the pineal gland during the hours of darkness. It plays a major role in the sleep-wake cycle. Clinical studies in renal, breast, colon, lung, and brain cancer suggest that melatonin may make chemotherapy and radiation therapy more effective; however randomized, blinded trials are needed to study these results.

  • See the Botanical/Dietary supplements section in the PDQ health professional summary on Sleep Disorders for information about how melatonin is being studied in sleep disturbances.

Modified Citrus Pectin

Citrus pectin is found in the peel and pulp of citrus fruits such as oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. Citrus pectin can be modified with high pH and heat so that it can be digested and absorbed by the body. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) may have effects on cancer growth and metastasis. Some research suggests that MCP may be protective against various types of cancer, including colon, lung, and prostate cancer.

  • See the Modified Citrus Pectin section in the PDQ patient summary on Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements for more information.


The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is native to Asia and grown in many parts of the world. Different parts of the pomegranate fruit have bioactive compounds that may support good health, including antioxidants found in the peel. Certain pomegranate extracts have been shown in laboratory studies to slow the growth and spread of prostate cancer cells and to cause cell death.

  • See the Pomegranate section in the PDQ patient summary on Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements for more information.


Probiotics are live microorganisms used as a dietary supplement to help with digestion and normal bowel function. A bacterium found in yogurt called Lactobacillus acidophilus is the most common probiotic. The use of probiotics may be recommended in conditions related to diarrhea, gut-barrier dysfunction, and inflammatory response.

  • See the Probiotics section in the PDQ health professional summary on Gastrointestinal Complications for information about probiotics.


Soy is from a plant native to Asia that grows beans used in many food products. Soy foods (e.g., soy milk, miso, tofu, and soy flour) contain phytochemicals that may have health benefits. Isoflavones are the most widely researched compounds in soy. Soy is being studied for the prevention of cancer, hot flashes during menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density).

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Nutrition in Cancer Care for information about the effects of soy on breast cancer.
  • See the Soy section in the PDQ patient summary on Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements for information about studies of soy in prostate cancer.


Tea has long been thought to have health benefits, and many believe it can help lower the risk of cancer. Tea contains polyphenol compounds including catechins, which are antioxidants that help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

  • See Tea and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence for information about tea and cancer prevention.

Some studies suggest that green tea may have a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. There is also evidence that green tea may protect against various forms of cancer.

  • See the Green Tea section in the PDQ patient summary on Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements for more information about studies of green tea in prostate cancer.

Vitamin C, High-Dose

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a nutrient that humans must get from food or supplements since it cannot be made in the body. Vitamin C is an antioxidant and helps prevent oxidative stress. It also works with enzymes to play a key role in making collagen. High-dose vitamin C has been studied as a treatment for cancer patients.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on High-Dose Vitamin C for more information.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a nutrient involved in a number of functions that are essential for good health. Skin exposed to sunshine can make Vitamin D. It can also be consumed in the diet, but very few foods naturally contain vitamin D. These foods include fatty fish, fish liver oil, and eggs.

  • See Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence for information about studies of the possible role of vitamin D in cancer prevention.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to stay healthy and work the way it should. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in seeds, nuts, leafy green vegetables, and vegetable oils. Vitamin E boosts the immune system and helps keep blood clots from forming. It also helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals (unstable molecules in the body). Vitamin E is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. It is a type of antioxidant.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Fever, Sweats, and Hot Flashes for information about studies of Vitamin E in hot flashes.

Pharmacologic Treatments


714-X is a chemical compound that contains camphor, a natural substance that comes from the wood and bark of the camphor tree. Nitrogen, water, and salts are added to camphor to make 714-X. It is claimed that 714-X protects the immune system and helps the body fight cancer. No peer-reviewed studies of 714-X has been published to show that it is safe or effective in treating cancer.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on 714-X for more information.


Antineoplastons are drugs made of chemical compounds that are naturally present in the urine and blood. It has been claimed that antineoplaston therapy can be used to stop certain cancer cells from dividing, while healthy cells are not affected.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Antineoplastons for more information.


Cancell/Cantron/Protocel is a liquid that has been made in different forms since the late 1930s. It is also known by the names Sheridan's Formula, Jim's Juice, JS-114, JS-101, 126-F, and the "Cancell-like" products Cantron and Protocel. The exact ingredients of Cancell/Cantron/Protocel are not known and it is not effective in treating any type of cancer.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Cancell/Cantron/Protocel for more information.

Cartilage (Bovine and Shark)

Bovine (cow) cartilage and shark cartilage have been studied as treatments for people with cancer and other medical conditions for more than 30 years. Substances that prevent the body from making the new blood vessels that a tumor needs to grow have been found in bovine cartilage and shark cartilage. However, these substances have not shown an effect on the growth of normal cells or tumor cells.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) for more information.

Hydrazine Sulfate

Hydrazine sulfate is a chemical that has been studied as a treatment for cancer and as a treatment for body wasting (i.e., cachexia) that can develop with this disease. It has been claimed that hydrazine sulfate limits the ability of tumors to take in glucose, which is a type of sugar that tumor cells need to grow.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Hydrazine Sulfate for more information.


Laetrile is another name for the chemical amygdalin, which is found in the pits of many fruits and in numerous plants. Cyanide is thought to be the active anticancer ingredient of laetrile. Laetrile has shown little anticancer activity in animal studies and no anticancer activity in human clinical trials.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Laetrile/Amygdalin for more information.

Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV)

Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) is usually thought to be an avian (bird) virus, but it also infects humans. It causes a potentially fatal, noncancerous disease (Newcastle disease) in birds, but causes only minor illness in humans. NDV appears to copy itself much better in human cancer cells than in most normal human cells and may have anticancer effects.

  • See the PDQ patient summary on Newcastle Disease Virus for more information.

Changes to This Summary (03 / 29 / 2013)

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.

This is a new summary.

General CAM Information

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)—also referred to as integrative medicine—includes a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. A therapy is generally called complementary when it is used in addition to conventional treatments; it is often called alternative when it is used instead of conventional treatment. (Conventional treatments are those that are widely accepted and practiced by the mainstream medical community.) Depending on how they are used, some therapies can be considered either complementary or alternative. Complementary and alternative therapies are used in an effort to prevent illness, reduce stress, prevent or reduce side effects and symptoms, or control or cure disease.

Unlike conventional treatments for cancer, complementary and alternative therapies are often not covered by insurance companies. Patients should check with their insurance provider to find out about coverage for complementary and alternative therapies.

Cancer patients considering complementary and alternative therapies should discuss this decision with their doctor, nurse, or pharmacist as they would any therapeutic approach, because some complementary and alternative therapies may interfere with their standard treatment or may be harmful when used with conventional treatment.

Evaluation of CAM Approaches

It is important that the same rigorous scientific evaluation used to assess conventional approaches be used to evaluate CAM therapies. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) are sponsoring a number of clinical trials (research studies) at medical centers to evaluate CAM therapies for cancer.

Conventional approaches to cancer treatment have generally been studied for safety and effectiveness through a rigorous scientific process that includes clinical trials with large numbers of patients. Less is known about the safety and effectiveness of complementary and alternative methods. Few CAM therapies have undergone rigorous evaluation. A small number of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that may help patients feel better and recover faster. One example is acupuncture. According to a panel of experts at a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference in November 1997, acupuncture has been found to be effective in the management of chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting and in controlling pain associated with surgery. In contrast, some approaches, such as the use of laetrile, have been studied and found ineffective or potentially harmful.

The NCI Best Case Series Program, which was started in 1991, is one way CAM approaches that are being used in practice are being investigated. The program is overseen by the NCI's Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM). Health care professionals who offer alternative cancer therapies submit their patients' medical records and related materials to OCCAM. OCCAM conducts a critical review of the materials and develops follow-up research strategies for approaches deemed to warrant NCI-initiated research.

Questions to Ask Your Health Care Provider About CAM

When considering complementary and alternative therapies, patients should ask their health care provider the following questions:

  • What side effects can be expected?
  • What are the risks associated with this therapy?
  • Do the known benefits outweigh the risks?
  • What benefits can be expected from this therapy?
  • Will the therapy interfere with conventional treatment?
  • Is this therapy part of a clinical trial?
  • If so, who is sponsoring the trial?
  • Will the therapy be covered by health insurance?

To Learn More About CAM

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)

The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) facilitates research and evaluation of complementary and alternative practices, and provides information about a variety of approaches to health professionals and the public.

NCCAM Clearinghouse
Post Office Box 7923 Gaithersburg, MD 20898–7923
Telephone: 1–888–644–6226 (toll free) 301–519–3153 (for International callers)
TTY (for deaf and hard of hearing callers): 1–866–464–3615
Fax: 1–866–464–3616
Web site:

CAM on PubMed

NCCAM and the NIH National Library of Medicine (NLM) jointly developed CAM on PubMed, a free and easy-to-use search tool for finding CAM-related journal citations. As a subset of the NLM's PubMed bibliographic database, CAM on PubMed features more than 230,000 references and abstracts for CAM-related articles from scientific journals. This database also provides links to the Web sites of over 1,800 journals, allowing users to view full-text articles. (A subscription or other fee may be required to access full-text articles.) CAM on PubMed is available through the NCCAM Web site. It can also be accessed through NLM PubMed bibliographic database by selecting the "Limits" tab and choosing "Complementary Medicine" as a subset.

Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine

The NCI Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) coordinates the activities of the NCI in the area of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). OCCAM supports CAM cancer research and provides information about cancer-related CAM to health providers and the general public via the NCI Web site.

National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Information Service

U.S. residents may call the NCI Cancer Information Service toll free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 am to 8:00 pm. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.

Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates drugs and medical devices to ensure that they are safe and effective.

Food and Drug Administration
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857
Telephone: 1–888–463–6332 (toll free)
Web site:

Federal Trade Commission

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) enforces consumer protection laws. Publications available from the FTC include:

  • Who Cares: Sources of Information About Health Care Products and Services
  • Fraudulent Health Claims: Don't Be Fooled
Consumer Response Center
Federal Trade Commission
Washington, DC 20580
Telephone: 1-877-FTC-HELP (1-877-382-4357) (toll free)
TTY (for deaf and hearing impaired callers): 202-326-2502
Web site:

About PDQ

PDQ is a comprehensive cancer database available on NCI's Web site.

PDQ is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. Most of the information contained in PDQ is available online at NCI's Web site. PDQ is provided as a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health, the federal government's focal point for biomedical research.

PDQ contains cancer information summaries.

The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries are available in two versions. The health professional versions provide detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions provide current and accurate cancer information.

Images in the PDQ summaries are used with permission of the author(s), artist, and/or publisher for use within the PDQ summaries only. Permission to use images outside the context of PDQ information must be obtained from the owner(s) and cannot be granted by the National Cancer Institute. Information about using the illustrations in the PDQ summaries, along with many other cancer-related images, are available in Visuals Online, a collection of over 2,000 scientific images.

The PDQ cancer information summaries are developed by cancer experts and reviewed regularly.

Editorial Boards made up of experts in oncology and related specialties are responsible for writing and maintaining the cancer information summaries. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made as new information becomes available. The date on each summary ("Date Last Modified") indicates the time of the most recent change.

PDQ also contains information on clinical trials.

A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies and what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help cancer patients. During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard." Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Listings of clinical trials are included in PDQ and are available online at NCI's Web site. Descriptions of the trials are available in health professional and patient versions. Many cancer doctors who take part in clinical trials are also listed in PDQ. For more information, call the Cancer Information Service 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).

Last Revised: 2013-03-29

If you want to know more about cancer and how it is treated, or if you wish to know about clinical trials for your type of cancer, you can call the NCI's Cancer Information Service at 1-800-422-6237, toll free. A trained information specialist can talk with you and answer your questions.

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