What is hepatitis A?
Hepatitis A is a virus that can infect the liver. In most cases, the infection goes away on its own and doesn't lead to long-term liver problems. In rare cases, it can be more serious.
How is hepatitis A spread?
The hepatitis A virus is found in the stool of an infected person. It is spread when a person eats food or drinks water that has come in contact with infected stool.
Sometimes a group of people who eat at the same restaurant can get hepatitis A. This can happen when an employee with hepatitis A doesn't wash his or her hands well after using the bathroom and then prepares food. It can also happen when a food item is contaminated by raw sewage or by an infected garden worker.
The disease can also spread in day care centers. Children, especially those in diapers, may get stool on their hands and then touch objects that other children put into their mouths. And workers can spread the virus if they don't wash their hands well after changing a diaper.
Some things can raise your risk of getting hepatitis A, such as eating raw oysters or undercooked clams. If you're traveling in a country where hepatitis A is common, you can lower your chances of getting the disease by avoiding uncooked foods and untreated tap water.
You may also be at risk if you live with or have sex with someone who has hepatitis A.
What are the symptoms?
After you have been exposed to the virus, it can take from 2 to 7 weeks before you see any signs of it. Symptoms usually last for about 2 months but may last longer.
Common symptoms are:
- Feeling very tired.
- Feeling sick to your stomach and not feeling hungry.
- Losing weight without trying.
- Pain on the right side of the belly, under the rib cage (where your liver is).
- A fever.
- Sore muscles.
- Yellow skin (jaundice), dark urine, and clay-colored stools.
All forms of hepatitis have similar symptoms. Only a blood test can tell if you have hepatitis A or another form of the disease.
Call your doctor if you have reason to think that you have hepatitis A or have been exposed to it. (For example, did you recently eat in a restaurant where a server was found to have hepatitis A? Has there been an outbreak at your child's day care? Does someone in your house have hepatitis A?)
How is hepatitis A diagnosed?
Your doctor will ask questions about your symptoms and where you have eaten or traveled. You may have blood tests if your doctor thinks you have the virus. These tests can tell if your liver is inflamed and whether you have antibodies to the hepatitis A virus. These antibodies prove that you have been exposed to the virus.
How is it treated?
Hepatitis A goes away on its own in most cases. Most people get well within a few months. While you have hepatitis:
- Slow down. Cut back on daily activities until all of your energy returns. As you start to feel better, take your time in getting back to your regular routine. If you try to do it too fast, you may get sick again.
- Drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration. Fruit juices and broth are other good choices, if you can tolerate them.
- Eat a healthy mix of foods. Even though food may not appeal to you, it is important for you to get good nutrition.
- Don't drink alcohol or use illegal drugs. They can make liver problems worse.
- Make sure your doctor knows all the medicines you are taking, including herbal products. Don't start or change any medicines without talking to your doctor first.
If hepatitis A causes more serious illness, you may need to stay in the hospital to prevent problems while your liver heals.
Be sure to take steps to avoid spreading the virus to others.
- Wash your hands with soap and water right after you use the bathroom or change a diaper and before you prepare food.
- Tell the people you live with or have sex with that you have hepatitis A. They should ask their doctors whether they need a dose of the vaccine or a shot of immunoglobulin (IG).
- Don't have sexual contact with anyone while you're infected.
You can only get the hepatitis A virus once. After that, your body builds up a defense against it.
What can you do to prevent hepatitis A?
- Get vaccinated against hepatitis A (What is a PDF document?) if your travel plans, job, health, or lifestyle puts you at risk.
- Make sure your children get vaccinated. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the vaccine for all children starting at age 1 year. It's also important for children adopted from other countries to get the vaccine.
- Talk to your doctor if you've been around someone who you know has hepatitis A. The hepatitis A vaccine or an injection of immunoglobulin (IG) within 2 weeks of exposure may prevent you from getting sick.1
- Practice good hygiene habits.
- Wash your hands well after using the toilet, after changing a diaper, and before you prepare or eat food.
- Wash dishes in hot, soapy water or in a dishwasher.
- Discourage children from putting objects in their mouths.
- Don't eat or drink anything that you think may have been prepared in unclean conditions.
- Don't eat raw or undercooked shellfish.
- If you plan to travel to a part of the world where
sanitation is poor or where hepatitis A is a known problem:
- Ask your doctor about getting the hepatitis A vaccine, a shot of immunoglobulin (IG), or the combination hepatitis A and B vaccine.
- Always drink bottled water or boil water before drinking it. Avoid drinks with ice cubes.
- Don't eat raw foods, such as unpeeled fruits or vegetables.
Frequently Asked Questions
Learning about hepatitis A:
Preventing hepatitis A:
Other Places To Get Help
|American Liver Foundation (ALF)|
|39 Broadway, Suite 2700|
|New York, NY 10006|
The American Liver Foundation (ALF) funds research and informs the public about liver disease. A nationwide network of chapters and support groups exists to help people who have liver disease and to help their families. ALF also sponsors a national organ-donor program to increase public awareness of the continuing need for organs. You can send an email by completing a form on the contact page on the ALF website: www.liverfoundation.org/contact.
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Division of Viral Hepatitis|
The Division of Viral Hepatitis provides information about viral hepatitis online and by telephone 24 hours a day. Pamphlets also are available. Information is available in English and in Spanish.
|Hepatitis Foundation International|
|504 Blick Drive|
|Silver Spring, MD 20904-2901|
This organization is a grassroots communication and support network for people with viral hepatitis. It provides education to patients, professionals, and the public about the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of viral hepatitis. The organization will make referrals to local doctors and support groups.
|Immunization Action Coalition|
|1573 Selby Avenue|
|St. Paul, MN 55104|
The Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) works to raise awareness of the need for immunizations to help prevent disease. The website has videos and photos about how vaccines work and the diseases the vaccines prevent. The site also offers information about vaccine safety and common concerns and myths about vaccines.
|National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse|
|2 Information Way|
|Bethesda, MD 20892-3570|
This clearinghouse is a service of the U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The clearinghouse answers questions; develops, reviews, and sends out publications; and coordinates information resources about digestive diseases. Publications produced by the clearinghouse are reviewed carefully for scientific accuracy, content, and readability.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007). Update: Prevention of hepatitis A after exposure to hepatitis A virus and in international travelers. Updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR, 56(RR-41): 1080–1084. Also available online: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5641a3.htm.
Other Works Consulted
- American Academy of Pediatrics (2009). Hepatitis A. In LK Pickering et al., eds., Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 28th ed., pp. 329–337. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006). Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR, 55 (RR-7): 1–23. Also available online: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5507.pdf.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Updated recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for use of hepatitis A vaccine in close contacts of newly arriving international adoptees. MMWR, 58(36): 1006–1007. Also available online:
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR, 59(RR-12): 1–110. Also available online: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5912a1.htm?s_cid=rr5912a1_w.
- Curry MP, Chopra S (2010). Acute viral hepatitis. In GL Mandell et al., eds., Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 1, pp. 1577–1592. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
- Weller PF (2009). Health advice for international travelers. In EG Nabel, ed., ACP Medicine, Clinical Essentials, chap. 7. Hamilton, ON: BC Decker.
|Primary Medical Reviewer||E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||W. Thomas London, MD - Hepatology|
|Last Revised||August 30, 2012|
Last Revised: August 30, 2012
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